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飓风小讲堂(第8讲):气象论文中的缩写

犀牛云 2021-06-15
浏览次数: 13

气象论文中常见的缩略词


飓风小讲堂(第6讲):连词和连词词组的用法

缩略词(abbreviations)是我们论文写作中经常遇到的,也是不可避免的。其中可发音的缩略词,称为acronym,例如ENSO;不可发音的缩略词,称为initialism,例如MCV。本期飓风讲堂整理了我们气象论文中常用的缩略词,供大家查询使用(见文后列表)。另外,关于缩略词的用法,还有几点细节需要关注:

    1.  缩写,在摘要,正文,图题(包括表题),这三部分中,是单独计算的,即某一部分的第一次出现,要给出全称。而且,缩写需保持全文一致。期刊的要求是这样的:Abbreviations should be defined in parentheses the first time they appear in the abstract, main text, and in figure or table captions and used consistently thereafter.

    2.  文章题目中,可以出现缩写,但这个缩写必须是公认的,没有歧义的。自创的缩写不要出现在文章题目中。

例如:(1) Reliability of ENSO Dynamical Predictions (Tang et al. 2005)

                     (2) Representation of Soil Moisture Feedbacks during Drought in NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF)                                                           (Benjamin et al. 2013)

                     (3) Pressure Transients within MCS Mesohighs and Wake Lows  

                               (Jason C. Knievel and Richard H. Johnson 1998)

 3. 章节标题一般不用缩写,除非这个缩写也是公认的、没有歧义的。具体要求和文章题目类似。

    4. 一些常用的词汇的缩写,且全称较为复杂的、长度偏长的,可以不用给出全称,例如 ERA5,ENSO等。

    (Li et al. 2020)飓风小讲堂(第8讲):气象论文中的缩写

      (Vimont et al. 2003)

飓风小讲堂(第8讲):气象论文中的缩写

5. 缩略词前的定冠词the的使用,可以发音的词汇(如NASA)不加the,不可以发音的词汇(如MCV)则需加the。例如:

          (1)The National Research Council (NRC) recently highlighted the dual role of NASA to support both science and applications in planning Earth observations. (Moran et al. 2015)

   (2)The MCV of interest developed from a preexisting upper-level disturbance over the southwest United States on 10 June and matured as it traveled northeastward. Daniel et al. 2007

关于缩略词,大家有什么疑问的也可以通过微信随时和我们飓风翻译交流,微信二维码:

飓风小讲堂(第8讲):气象论文中的缩写

       气象论文中常用的缩写词列表如下(建议收藏):


Standard technical abbreviations and acronyms

1D           one-dimensional

2D           two-dimensional

3D           three-dimensional

3DVAR (also variations, e.g., 3D-Var)       three-dimensional variational data assimilation

4DVAR (also variations, e.g., 4D-Var)       four-dimensional variational data assimilation

A

ABL            atmospheric boundary layer

ac                alternating current

AD              anno Domini

ADCP         acoustic Doppler current profiler

AGCM        atmospheric general circulation model

AGL            above ground level

AM              amplitude modulation

AMO           Atlantic multidecadal oscillation

ANOVA      analysis of variance

APEX          autonomous profiling explorer

AXBT          airborne XBT

AXCTD       airborne expendable CTD

B

BP                before present

BT (XBT)    bathythermograph (expendable)

C

CAPE          convective available potential energy

CAPPI         constant-altitude plan position indicator

CAT            clear-air turbulence

CBL            convective boundary layer

CCN           cloud condensation nuclei

CDF           cumulative distribution function

CFL            Courant–Friedrichs–Lewy

cgs             centimeter-gram-second

CIN            convective inhibition

CONUS     contiguous/conterminous United States

cos           cosine

cpd           cycles per day

cpy           cycles per year

CTD          conductivity–temperature–depth

D

dc            direct current

DEM         digital elevation model

DJF          December–February

DSD         drop size distribution

E

EF scale         enhanced Fujita scale (EF#)

EHI                energy–helicity index

EM-APEX     electromagnetic autonomous profiling explorer

emf                electromotive force

EnKF            ensemble Kalman filter

ENSO           El Niño–Southern Oscillation

EOF             empirical orthogonal function

Eq.               equation

ERB            earth radiation budget

erf               error function

erfc             error function (complement of)

et al.           et alia/ii/iae (and others)

etc.             et cetera

ETS           equitable threat score

EUV          extreme ultraviolet

F

F scale        Fujita scale (F#)

FAR           false alarm rate (or ratio)

FDDA        four-dimensional data assimilation

FFT           fast Fourier transform

Fig.            figure

FM            frequency modulation

G

GBVTD       ground-based velocity track display

GCM           general circulation model (OR global climate model)

GIS             geographic information system

GPS             global positioning system

H

HF               high frequency

HVAR          hybrid variational scheme

Hz, cps         cycles per second

I

IGY             International Geophysical Year

Im               imaginary part

IOP             intensive observing/observation period

IR               infrared

ITCZ          intertropical convergence zone

IWC           ice water content

J

JEBAR        joint effect of baroclinicity and relief

JJA              June–August

K

KdV            Korteweg–de Vries

KPP            K-profile parameterization

L

LAI             leaf area index

LCL            lifting condensation level

LES            large-eddy simulation

LFC            level of free convection

Lhs             left-hand side

LSM           land surface model

LST            local standard time

LT              local time

LWC          liquid water content

LWP          liquid water path

M

MAE           mean absolute error

MAM          March–May

MBL           marine boundary layer

MCS           mesoscale convective system

METAR      aviation routine weather report

min              minute

MJO           Madden–Julian oscillation

mks            meter-kilogram-second

MODE       Method for Object-Based Diagnostic Evaluation

mol wt        molecular weight

MOS          model output statistics

MSL           above mean sea level

MUCAPE     most unstable CAPE

MUCIN       most unstable CIN

MYJ            Mellor–Yamada–Janji?

MYNN       Mellor–Yamada–Nakanishi–Niino

N

NAO          North Atlantic Oscillation

NDVI         normalized difference vegetation index

NH             Northern Hemisphere

NWP           numerical weather prediction

O

ODE           ordinary differential equation

OGCM       ocean GCM

OLR          outgoing longwave radiation

OSSE        observing system simulation experiment

P

PBL           planetary boundary layer

PCA           principal component analysis

PDE           partial differential equation

PDF/pdf       probability density/distribution function

PDO           Pacific decadal oscillation

PDSI           Palmer drought severity index

PM2.5; PM10       particulate matter that is smaller than 2.5 (10) μm in diameter

POD           probability of detection

PoP            probability of precipitation

ppb            parts per billion

PPI            plan position indicator

ppm           parts per million

ppmv          parts per million by volume

PRF           pulse repetition frequency

psu            practical salinity unit

PV            potential vorticity

Q

QBO          quasi-biennial oscillation

QPE           quantitative precipitation estimation

QPF           quantitative precipitation forecast

R

R/V               research vessel

RAFOS        not an acronym; no expansion

Re                 real part

RH                 relative humidity

RHI                range–height indicator

Rhs                  right-hand side

rms/RMS       root-mean-square

rmse/RMSE     root-mean-square error

RMW               radius of maximum winds

RT                    radiative transfer

S

SACZ              South Atlantic convergence zone

SH                   Southern Hemisphere

SI units           International System of Units

SLP                 sea level pressure

SNR                signal-to-noise ratio

SOFAR            sound fixing and ranging

SOI                 Southern Oscillation index

SON               September–November

SPCZ              South Pacific convergence zone

SSA                 sea surface anomaly

SSH                 sea surface height

SST                  sea surface temperature

SSTA                sea surface temperature anomaly

STEM/STEAM   science, technology, engineering (arts), and math

STP                      significant tornado parameter

STP                     standard temperature and pressure

SVAT                  soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer

SVD                     singular value decomposition

SWE                   snow water equivalent

T

THC          thermohaline circulation

TKE          turbulent/turbulence kinetic energy

TOA          top of the atmosphere

TPW          total precipitable water

U

UHF          ultrahigh-frequency

UHI          urban heat island

UTC          coordinated universal time

UTM         universal transverse Mercator

UV           ultraviolet

V

VAD         velocity–azimuth display

VHF          very high frequency

VIL          vertically integrated liquid water content

W

w.r.t.         with respect to

WDM6       WRF double-moment 6-class

WES         wind–evaporation–SST [often with “feedback”]

WISHE       wind-induced surface heat exchange

WKBJ        Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin–Jeffreys (sometimes just WKB)

X

XBT          expendable bathythermograph

XCTD        expendable CTD

Y

yr            year

Computer terms

ASCII        American Standard Code for Information Exchange

BUFR        Binary Universal Form for Representation of Meteorological Data

CD-ROM     compact disc read-only memory

CPU         central processing unit

CSV         comma-separated values

DOS         Disk Operating System

Fortran        Formula Translating System

FTP          file transfer protocol

HTML        Hypertext Markup Language

IDL          Interactive Data Language

IP            Internet protocol

LAN          local area network

MATLAB     matrix laboratory

MySQL       My Structured Query Language

netCDF       Network Common Data Form

OS/2         Operating System/2

PC           personal computer

PDF          Portable Document Format

RAM         random-access memory

ROM         read-only memory

SGML        Standard Generalized Markup Language

TCP/IP        Transmission Control Protocol/Internet protocol suite

UNIX/Unix    a computer operating system

URL          uniform resource locator

USB          universal serial bus

Wi-Fi         local area wireless network

XML         Extensible Markup Language

Institutions and units of institutions

A

AFGL        Air Force Geophysics Laboratory

AOML       Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

APDRC      Asia–Pacific Data-Research Center

ARL         Air Resources Laboratory

ASCE        American Society of Civil Engineers

B

BCC         Beijing Climate Center

BMRC       Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre

BOEM       Bureau of Ocean Energy Management

BoM         Bureau of Meteorology (Australia)

C

CAWCR      Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research

CCCma       Canadian Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis

CCSR        Center for Climate System Research

CDAAC      COSMIC Data Analysis and Archive Center

CERFACS     Centre Européen de Recherche et de Formation Avancée en Calcul Scientifique

CIMSS        Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies

CIRA         Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere

CIRES        Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences

CISESS       Cooperative Institute for Satellite Earth System Studies

CLIVAR      Climate and Ocean: Variability, Predictability and Change (for U.S. CLIVAR group: U.S. Climate Variability and Predictability Program)

CLS          Collecte Localisation Satellites

CMC         Canadian Meteorological Centre

CMCC        Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici

CNES         Centre National d’Études Spatiales

CNRS         Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique

COLA        Center for Ocean–Land–Atmosphere Studies

COSMO       Consortium for Small-Scale Modeling (maintains COSMO-Model or COSMO Model)

CPC          Climate Prediction Center

CPHC         Central Pacific Hurricane Center

CRU          Climatic Research Unit

CSIRO        Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation

CWB         Central Weather Bureau (Taiwan)

D

DAO         Data Assimilation Office (this is now the GMAO)

DKRZ        German Climate Computing Centre (Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum)

DOE         U.S. Department of Energy

DWD         German Weather Service (Deutscher Wetterdienst)

E

ECCO        Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean

ECMWF      European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts

EPA          U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

ESA          European Space Agency

ESRL         Earth System Research Laboratory

ETH          Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule

EUMETSAT   European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites

F

FAO          Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FRCGC        Frontier Research Center for Global Change

G

GES DISC     Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center

GFDL         Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory

GISS          Goddard Institute for Space Studies

GLERL        Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory

GMAO        Global Modeling and Assimilation Office

GPCC         Global Precipitation Climatology Centre

GSFC         Goddard Space Flight Center

I

IAP           Institute of Atmospheric Physics

IAPSO        The International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans

INGV         Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia

INM          Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (Spain)

IPCC          Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

IPRC          International Pacific Research Center

IPSL          L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace

IRI           International Research Institute for Climate and Society

J

JAMSTEC     Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology

JAXA         Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency

JCOMM       Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology

JISAO        Joint Institute for the Study of the Atmosphere and Ocean

JMA         Japan Meteorological Agency

JPL          Jet Propulsion Laboratory

JTWC        Joint Typhoon Warning Center

K

KNMI        Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut)

KMA         Korea Meteorological Agency

L

LASG        State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics

LDEO        Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

LEGOS       Laboratoire d’Etudes en Géophysique et Océanographie Spatiale

LMD         Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique

LODYC       Laboratoire d’Océanographic Dynamique et de Climatologie (France)

M

MDL         Meteorological Development Laboratory

MEST        Korean Ministry of Education, Science, and Technology

MeteoSwiss   Swiss Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology

MPI          Max Planck Institute

MSC         Meteorological Service of Canada

N

NASA        National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NCAR        National Center for Atmospheric Research

NCDC        National Climatic Data Center

NCEI         National Centers for Environmental Information

NCEP         National Centers for Environmental Prediction

NDBC        National Data Buoy Center

NERC        Natural Environment Research Council

NESDIS      National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service

NGDC        National Geophysical Data Center

NHC         National Hurricane Center

NOAA        National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

NOC         National Oceanography Centre

NODC        National Oceanographic Data Center

NRL          Naval Research Laboratory

NSF          National Science Foundation

NSFC         National Natural Science Foundation of China

NSIDC        National Snow and Ice Data Center

NSSL         National Severe Storms Laboratory

NWS          National Weather Service

O

OAR         Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research

ONR         Office of Naval Research

P

PCMDI       Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison

PMEL        Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory

PO.DAAC     Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center

Q

QCCCE       Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence

U

UCAR        University Corporation for Atmospheric Research

UKMO        Met Office

USDA        U.S. Department of Agriculture

USDM        U.S. Drought Monitor

USGS         U.S. Geological Survey

W

WCRP         World Climate Research Programme

WGCM        Working Group on Coupled Modelling

WHOI         Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

WMO         World Meteorological Organization

Y

YSU          Yonsei University

 

Programs, experiments, satellites, and instruments

20C3M         20th Century Climate in Coupled Models

20CR           Twentieth Century Reanalysis

3MI            Multi-viewing, Multi-channel, Multi-polarization (or -polarisation) Imager

A

ACARS        Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System

AERONET     Aerosol Robotic Network

AIRS          Atmospheric Infrared Sounder

AMIP          Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project

AMSR         Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer

AMSR-E       Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (EOS)

AMSU         Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit

APHRODITE   Asian Precipitation—Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration Towards Evaluation of Water Resources

AR4           Fourth Assessment Report

ARM          Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

ASCAT        Advanced Scatterometer

ASOS          Automated Surface Observing System

ASTER         Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer

ASTEX        Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment

ATOVS        Advanced TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder

AVHRR        Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer

AVISO         Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic Data

AWIPS          Advanced Weather Interactive Processing System

AWOS          Automated Weather Observing System

B

BAMEX         Bow Echo and Mesoscale Convective Vortex Experiment

BATS           Biosphere–Atmosphere Transfer Scheme

BOBMEX        Bay of Bengal Monsoon Experiment

BOMEX         Barbados Oceanographic and Meteorological Experiment

BOREAS        Boreal Ecosystem–Atmosphere Study

BSRN           Baseline Surface Radiation Network

C

CALIOP         Cloud–Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization

CALIPSO        Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

CAPS           Cloud, Aerosol, Precipitation Spectrometer

CART           Cloud and Radiation Testbed

CAS            Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer

CASES-99       1999 Cooperative Atmosphere–Surface Exchange Study

CBLAST         Coupled Boundary Layers Air–Sea Transfer

CERES          Clouds and the Earth’s Radiant Energy System

CFMIP          Cloud Feedback Model Intercomparison Project

CFSR           Climate Forecast System Reanalysis

CHAMP         Challenging Minisatellite Payload

C-MAN         Coastal-Marine Automated Network

CMAP          Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Merged Analysis of Precipitation

CMIP           Coupled Model Intercomparison Project

CMIPx          phase x of CMIP [x = 3, 5, or 6 (planned)]

COADS         Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set

COARE         Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment

CoCoRaHS      Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network

CONTRAIL      Comprehensive Observation Network for Trace Gases by Airliner

COOP           Cooperative Observer Program

CORE           Co-ordinated Ocean–Ice Reference Experiments (run by CLIVAR)

COSMIC         Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (also Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Interaction Code)

COSMOS        Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System

COSP            The CFMIP Observation Simulator Package

CRYSTAL-FACE  Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers–Florida-Area Cirrus Experiment

CSU–CHILL       Colorado State University–University of Chicago–Illinois State Water Survey

CuPIDO           Cumulus Photogrammetric, In Situ, and Doppler Observations

D

DART           Data Assimilation Research Testbed

DIMES          Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean

DMSP           Defense Meteorological Satellite Program

DOCIMS         Drizzle and Open Cells in Marine Stratocumulus field study

DOTSTAR       Dropsonde Observations for Typhoon Surveillance near the Taiwan Region

DYCOMS II      Second Dynamics and Chemistry of the Marine Stratocumulus field study

DYNAMO        Dynamics of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (also Dynamics of North Atlantic Models)

E

EarthCARE      Earth Cloud, Aerosol, and Radiation Explorer

EBAF           Energy Balanced and Filled

ECA&D         European Climate Assessment and Dataset

EC-EARTH      EC-Earth Consortium (and its Earth system model)

EDAS           Eta Data Assimilation System

ELDORA        Electra Doppler Radar

ENVI           Environment for Visualizing Images

E-OBS          European daily high-resolution gridded dataset

EOS            Earth Observing System

EOSDIS         Earth Observing System Data Information System

EPIC           Eastern Pacific Investigation of Climate Processes in the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere System

ER-2            no expansion (NASA aircraft)

ERA            ECMWF Re-Analysis (this prefix is now used by ECMWF as a product name without expansion)

ERA5           Fifth major global reanalysis produced by ECMWF

ERA-15         15-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis

ERA-40         40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis

ERA-Interim     European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) interim reanalysis

ERBE           Earth Radiation Budget Experiment

ERBS            Earth Radiation Budget Satellite

EROS           Earth Resources Observation and Science

ERS            European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS roman but ERS-2 italic)

ERSST          Extended Reconstructed SST

ERSST.v3b       Extended Reconstructed SST, version 3b

ESWD           European Severe Weather Database

ETCCDI         Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices

ETM+           Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus

ETOP05          Elevation Data for Areas Greater than 50 degrees North

Etopo            no expansion (topographical maps of Canada developed by a company called Etopo)

ETOPO2v2       2-minute gridded elevations/bathymetry for the world

ETOPO5         5-minute gridded elevations/bathymetry for the world

F

FASTEX         Fronts and Atlantic Storm Track Experiment

FGGE           First Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Global Experiment

FIRE            First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment

FIRE-ACE       First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Regional Experiment-Arctic Cloud Experiment

FLAME         Family of Linked Atlantic Model Experiments

FSSP           forward scattering spectrometer probe (initial caps when referring to PMS product)

G

GAME          Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Asian Monsoon Experiment

GARP          Global Atmospheric Research Program

GATE          Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment

GCE           Goddard Cumulus Ensemble

GCSS          GEWEX Cloud System Study

GEBA          Global Energy Balance Archive

GECCO        German contribution to Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean

GEMPAK       General Meteorological Package

GEOS          Goddard Earth Observing System (not a satellite)

GEOSS         Global Earth Observation System of Systems

GERB          Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget

GEWEX        Global Energy and Water Exchanges project (formerly Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment)

GFS               Global Forecast System [operated by NCEP]

GHRSST        Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (without hyphen between high resolution, see https://www.ghrsst.org/)

GISST                 Global Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset

GISTEMP       Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Surface Temperature Analysis

GLACE         Global Land–Atmosphere Coupling Experiment

GLDAS         Global Land Data Assimilation System

GLOWA        Global Change and the Hydrological Cycle

GMI           Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Microwave Imager

GODAE        Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment

GODAS        Global Ocean Data Assimilation System

GOES          Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-1)

GPCP          Global Precipitation Climatology Project 

GPI            Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) precipitation index

GPM           Global Precipitation Measurement

GPROF         Goddard profiling algorithm

GR-1           see R-1

GR-2           see R-2

GRACE         Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment

GRIP           Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (also Greenland Ice Core Project)

GSI             Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation analysis system

GSMaP          Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation

GSOP           Global Synthesis and Observations Panel

GSS            Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study

GSSTF          Goddard Satellite-based Surface Turbulent Fluxes

GSWP           Global Soil Wetness Project

GTOPO30        Global 30 arc s elevation dataset

H

HadCRUT4                       Hadley Centre/Climatic Research Unit, version 4

HadISST                            Hadley Centre Sea Ice and Sea Surface Temperature dataset

HadSLP1                           First Hadley Centre Sea Level Pressure dataset 

HAPEX-MOBILHY          Hydrological Atmospheric Pilot Experiment-Modelisation du Bilan Hydrique

HCDN                                Hydro-Climatic Data Network

HIRS                                  High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder

HOAPS                             Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data

HRDI                                 High Resolution Doppler Imager

HRST                                Historical Russian soil temperature

HSB                                   Humidity Sounder for Brazil [on board Aqua]

HURDAT/HURDAT2     NHC 'best track' hurricane database (no caps)

HVPS                               high-volume precipitation spectrometer

HydroSHEDS                 Hydrological Data and Maps Based on Shuttle Elevation Derivatives at Multiple Scales

I

IASI                                Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer

IASI-NG                          Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer—New Generation

IBTrACS                          International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship

ICARTT                           International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation

ICES                                 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea

ICESat                              Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat-1, ICESat-2)

ICOADS                           International Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set

IEEE                                 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IGBP                                International Geosphere–Biosphere Programme

IHOP_2002                      International H2O Project

IMERG                            Integrated Multisatellite Retrievals for GPM

IMILAST                     Intercomparison of mid latitude storm diagnostics (there is a space between mid and latitude;         

                                         http://www.proclim.ch/imilast/index.html)

IMPROVE-2               second Improvement of Microphysical Parameterization through Observational Verification Experiment

ISCCP                             International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

ISLSCP                            International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project

ISS                                   Integrated Sounding System (usually with NCAR)

J

JASMINE                        Joint Air–Sea Monsoon Interaction Experiment

JONSWAP                      Joint North Sea Wave Project

JRA-25                           Japanese 25-year Reanalysis Project

JRA-55                           Japanese 55-year Reanalysis

L

LBA                               Large-Scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment

LEO                             low-Earth orbiting (add hyphen after Earth if being used as an adjective)

LIS                                Lightning Imaging Sensor

LMA                             Lightning Mapping Array

LOWTRAN                 Low-Resolution Atmospheric Transmission

M

MARGO                    Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean Surface

MAS                          MODIS Airborne Simulator

MAST                       Monterey Area Ship Track

MASTER                  MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator

M-CLASS                   Mobile Cross-Chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System

MERRA                      Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications

MetOp                 Meteorological Operational satellites [series of satellites; for single satellites, e.g., Meteorological Operational Satellite-A (MetOp-A)]

M-GLASS                       Mobile GPS/Loran Atmospheric Sounding System

MiKlip                           Decadal Predictions (Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen)

MidCiX                          Middle Latitude Cirrus Experiment

MISR                              Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer

MLS                                Microwave Limb Sounder

MODIS                           Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

MODTRAN                     moderate resolution atmospheric transmission

MOSES                          Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme

MOZAIC                         Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service

MPDATA                       multidimensional positive definite advection transport algorithm

MRMS                            Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) system

MSS                                Multispectral Scanner

MSU                               Microwave Sounding Unit

N

NARCCAP                    North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program

NARR                           North American Regional Reanalysis

NCODA                        Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation

NEXRAD                     Next Generation Weather Radar

NLDAS                        North American Land Data Assimilation System

NLDN                          National Lightning Detection Network

NMQ                           National Mosaic and Multi-Sensor Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE)

NPOESS                      National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System

NSIPP                          NASA’s Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project

NVAP                         NASA’s Water Vapor Project

O

OAFlux                     objectively analyzed air–sea fluxes

OAP                           optical array probe

OLI                             Operational Land Imager

OPTRAN                    optical path transmittance

OSCAR                       Ocean Surface Currents Analyses–Real Time

OWLeS                       Ontario Winter Lake-effect Systems (OWLeS) field campaign

P

(P)ALACE                  (profiling) autonomous Lagrangian circulation explorer

PATMOS-x                 Pathfinder Atmospheres–Extended

PCASP                        passive cavity aerosol spectrometer probe

PERSIANN                 Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information Using Artificial Neural Networks

PILPS                          Project for the Intercomparison of Land-Surface Parameterization Schemes

PIRATA                       Prediction and Research Moored Array in the Tropical Atlantic

PIZA                            Population-Interaction Zones for Agriculture

PMIP                           Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project

POES                           Polar(-orbiting) Operational Environmental Satellite

POLDER                      Polarization and Directionality of the Earth's Reflectances

PR                               [TRMM] Precipitation Radar

PREDICT                    Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics

PRE-STORM               Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central

PROBE                        Program for Boundary Layers in the Environment

PRUDENCE                Prediction of Regional Scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining European Climate Change Risks and Effects

Q

QuikSCAT                   Quick Scatterometer (no italics, NASA is fine if included by author)

R

R-1                         the Kalnay et al. (1996)/Kistler et al. (2001) NCEP–NCAR reanalyses (aka Reanalysis-1, Global Reanalysis 1, 

                                    GR-  1, GR1, R1, and NCEP-1)

R-2                          NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (also referred to as Reanalysis-2, Global Reanalysis 2, GR-2, GR2, R2, and 

                                     NCEP- 2)

RADS                            Radar Altimeter Database System

RAINEX                       Hurricane Rainband and Intensity Change Experiment

RAPID–MOCHA       Rapid Climate Change–Meridional Overturning Circulation and Heatflux Array

RASS                            radio acoustic sounding system

READER                      Reference Antarctic Data for Environmental Research

REAL                           Raman-shifted Eye-safe Aerosol Lidar

RTTOV                        Radiative Transfer for TOVS

RUC                             Rapid Update Cycle

S  

S2S                             Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction project

SAGE                          Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment

SCIAMACHY            Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography

SCSMEX                    South China Sea Monsoon Experiment

SeaWiFS                   Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor

SEVIRI                      Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager

SHADOZ                   Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes

SHEBA                      Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean

SIRS                           Solar and Infrared Radiation Station

SIRTA                         Site Instrumental de Recherche en Télédétection Atmosphérique

SMAP                         Soil Moisture Active Passive (mission)

SMMR                        Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer

SMOS                         Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (mission/satellite)

SNOTEL                     Snowpack Telemetry

SODA                          Simple Ocean Data Assimilation

SOLAS                        Surface Ocean–Lower Atmosphere Study

S-Pol                            S-band dual-polarization Doppler radar

SPOT                           Système Pour l’Observation de la Terre

SRB                             surface radiation budget (caps for the NASA/GEWEX database)

SRES                           Special Report on Emissions Scenarios

SRTM                          Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

SRTM30                       SRTM global bathymetry and elevation data at 30 arc s resolution

SRTM30_PLUS           SRTM global bathymetry and elevation data at 30 arc s resolution with data voids filled

SSALTO                       Segment Sol multimissions d’ALTimétrie, d’Orbitographie et de localization  précise

SSM/I                           Special Sensor Microwave Imager

SSM/IS [Dept. of Defense]; SSMIS [NOAA]                                     Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder

SSM/T                         Special Sensor Microwave Temperature Profiler

SSU                             Stratospheric Sounding Unit

STORM-FEST           Storm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology-Fronts Experiment Systems Test

Suomi NPP/SNPP        Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership

SURFRAD                  Surface Radiation Budget Network

T

TAO                            Tropical Atmosphere Ocean (caps when buoy array is being discussed)

TAR                            Third Assessment Report

TCPF                          Tropical Cyclone Precipitation Feature database

TELEX                       Thunderstorm Electrification and Lightning Experiment

TEPPS                        Tropical East Pacific Process Studies

THORPEX                 The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment

TIGGE                       THORPEX Interactive Grand Global Ensemble

TIROS                        Television and Infrared Observation Satellite

TIRS                          Thermal Infared Sensor

TM                             Thematic Mapper (as in Landsat TM)

TMI                            Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager

TMPA                         Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis

TOGA COARE         Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment

TOMS                         Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

TOPEX                       Ocean Topography Experiment [often (TOPEX)/Poseidon (T/P)]

TOVS                         TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder

T-REX                        Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment

TRITON                      Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network

TRMM                        Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission

U

UARS                         Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite

UAV                      unmanned aerial vehicle (caps are used for ARM Project’s Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle)

UNEP                       United Nations Environment Programme

UNFCCC                 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

USHCN                    U.S. Historical Climatology Network

V

VAMOS                   Variability of American Monsoon Systems

VAPIC                     Water Vapour Profiling Inter-Comparison field experiment

VEMAP                   Vegetation-Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Program

VIIRS                      Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite

VIRS                       Visible and Infrared Scanner

VORTEX                Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment

W

WCR                       Wyoming Cloud Radar

WDSS-II                 Warning Decision Support System–Integrated Information

WEAP                     Weather Evaluation and Planning

WOCE                    World Ocean Circulation Experiment

WSM3                    WRF single-moment 3-class

WSM6                    WRF single-moment 6-class microphysics scheme

WSR-88D               Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler

 

Climatic, meteorological, oceanographic, and other models

A

ACCESS1.0             Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator, version 1.0

ACCESS1.3             Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator, version 1.3

ACOM2                   Australian Community Ocean Model 2

AGISM                    Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheet Model

ALADIN                 Aire Limitée Adaptation Dynamique Développement International

ALEXI                    Atmosphere–Land Exchange Inverse model

AMD                      angular directional model

AOGCM                atmosphere–ocean general circulation model

ARCSYM              Arctic Regional Climate System Model

AROME                 Applications of Research to Operations at Mesoscale

ARPEGE                Action de Recherche Petite Echelle Grande Echelle

ARPS                      Advanced Regional Prediction System

ARW                       Advanced Research version of WRF (see also WRF-ARW)

B

BCC_CSM1.1                   Beijing Climate Center, Climate System Model, version 1.1

BCC_CSM1.1(m)             Beijing Climate Center, Climate System Model, version 1.1 (moderate resolution)

BCCR-BCM2.0                Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research Bergen Climate Model, version 2.0

BMRC BAM3                  Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre Atmospheric Model, version 3

BNU-ESM                        Beijing Normal University–Earth System Model

C

CAM3.0                              Community Atmosphere Model, version 3.0

CanAM4 (or AGCM4)       Fourth Generation Canadian Atmospheric General Circulation Model

CanCM4 (or CGCM4)        Fourth Generation Canadian Coupled Global Climate Model

CanESM2                            Second Generation Canadian Earth System Model

CCM                                   Community Climate Model (NCAR) [or Chemistry–Climate Model (NASA GISS)]; should be specified

CCSM2                              Community Climate System Model, version 2

CCSM3                              Community Climate System Model, version 3

CCSM4                              Community Climate System Model, version 4

CDAS                                 Climate Data Assimilation System

CDR                                   PERSIANN–Climate Data Record

CESM1(BGC)                   Community Earth System Model, version 1 (biogeochemistry, or carbon cycle)

CESM1(CAM5)                 Community Earth System Model, version 1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5)

CESM1(CISM)                  Community Earth System Model, version 1 (ice sheet model)

CESM1(FASTCHEM)       Community Earth System Model, version 1 [Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-chem)]

CESM1(WACCM)             Community Earth System Model, version 1 (Whole Atmosphere  Community Climate Model)

CFS or CFSv1                    Climate Forecast System (sometimes used alone or in conjunction with version 1)

CFSv2                                 Climate Forecast System, version 2

CGCM                               coupled atmosphere–ocean general circulation model

CGCM3.1                          CCCma Coupled Global Climate Model, version 3.1 (may also include T47 or T63 for spectral resolution of model)

CICE                                   Los Alamos Sea Ice Model or Community Ice Code

CISM                                  Community Ice Sheet Model

CLIMBER                          Climate and Biosphere Model

CLIO                                 Coupled Large-Scale Ice Ocean

CLIPER                            climatology and persistence statisical models

CLM3                               Community Land Model, version 3

CMAM                             Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model

CMCC-CESM                  Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici Carbon Cycle Earth System Model

CMCC-CM                       Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici Climate Model

CMCC-CMS                     Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici Stratosphere-resolving Climate Model

CMOC                             Canadian Model of Ocean Carbon

CMORPH                        CPC morphing technique

CNRM-CM3                   Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Coupled Global Climate Model, version 3

CNRM-CM5                    Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques Coupled Global Climate Model, version 5

COAMPS                         Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System

COART                            Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Radiative Transfer Model

COCO4.5                    Center for Climate System Research (CCSR) Ocean Component Model, version 4.5 [CCSR is now the                                                    Atmosphere and      Ocean Research Institute (AORI) at the U. of Tokyo]

CRCM                             Canadian Regional Climate Model

CSIM                              Community Sea Ice Model

CSIRO Mk3.0                  Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Mark 3.0

CSIRO Mk3.6.0              Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation Mark 3.6.0

CSM1.0                          Climate System Model, version 1.0

CTEM                             Canadian Terrestrial Ecosystem Model

D

DARLAM                      Division of Atmospheric Research Limited Area Model

DEMETER                  Development of a European Multimodel Ensemble System for Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction

DGVM                          dynamic global vegetation model

DISORT                        Discrete Ordinate Radiative Transfer model

DOCN                          Climatological Data Ocean Model

E

ECBilt/CLIO            Earth system models of intermediate complexity Climate deBilt/Coupled large-scale ice ocean

EC-EARTH                 European Consortium Earth System Model

ECHAM5                no expansion used; it is very long and involves ECMWF, Hamburg, etc. (also ECHAM4)

ECHO-G                     ECHAM4 and the global Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation

ECPC-RSM                Experimental Climate Prediction Center Regional Spectral Model

EMBS                         Episodic mixing and buoyancy-sorting models

EMIC                          Earth system models of intermediate complexity

ENSEMBLES             Ensemble-Based Predictions of Climate Changes and Their Impacts

ESM                            Earth system model

ESGF                          Earth System Grid Federation

ESMF                         Earth System Modeling Framework

F

FAIR 2.0                     Framework to Assess International Regimes for Differentation of Commitments, version 2.0

FAMOUS                        Fast Met Office/U.K. Universities Simulator

FASTEM                         Fast Emissivity Model

FGOALS-g1.0             Flexible Global Ocean–Atmosphere–Land System Model, gridpoint version 1.0 (source reference is for 'g2,' but similar)

FGOALS-s2                Flexible Global Ocean–Atmosphere–Land System Model, second spectral version

FIO-ESM                         First Institute of Oceanography (FIO) Earth System Model (ESM)

FOAM-LPJ                     Fast Ocean Atmosphere Model–Lund Potsdam Jena Land Model

FROALS                         Flexible Regional Ocean Atmosphere Land System

FSUGSM                         Florida State University Global Spectral Model

G

GCM                            general circulation model (OR global climate model)

GDAS                          Global Data Assimilation System

GEFS                           Global Ensemble Forecast System

GEOS-5                       Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5

GFDL CM2.0              Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.0

GFDL CM2.1              Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.1

GFDL CM2.5              Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 2.5

GFDL CM3                 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model, version 3

GFDL-ESM2G            Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model with GOLD component

GFDL-ESM2M           Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Earth System Model with MOM, version 4 component

GFS                             Global Forecast System [may include cycle (cy) and revision (r) information]

GISS-AOM                 Goddard Institute for Space Studies, Atmosphere–Ocean Model [also GISS-Fast AOM (FAOM)]

GISS-E2-H                 Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2, coupled with HYCOM (see expansion below)

GISS-E2-R                  Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E2, coupled with the Russell ocean model

GISS-E2CS-H/R         GISS Model E2 using cubed-sphere grid coupled with either HYCOM or Russell

GISS-E2-H/R-CC       GISS Model E2, coupled with either HYCOM or Russell and interactive terrestrial carbon cycle (and oceanic biogeochemistry)

GISS-ER                     Goddard Institute for Space Studies Model E, coupled with the Russell ocean model

GOCART                    Goddard Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model

GOLD                         Generalized Ocean Layer Dynamics

H

HadAM3                   Hadley Centre Atmosphere Model, version 3

HadCM3                   Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3

HadGEM1                Hadley Centre Global Environment Model, version 1

HadGEMx-yy            Hadley Centre Global Environment Model, version x (x = 1, 2, or 3)

with yy configurations for HadGEM2 and HadGEM3:

A = Atmosphere and land

AO = A and O configurations

CC = Carbon Cycle (includes AO configuration with biogeochemistry, sometimes includes CCS, with S for stratospheric processes)

ES = Earth System (includes CC configuration with chemistry)

GC = Global Coupled (e.g., HadGEM3-GC3.1 is the Global Coupled 3.1 configuration) 

O = Ocean and sea ice

RA = Regional Atmosphere

HadRM3                   Hadley Centre Regional Climate Model, version 3

HARMONIE            HIRLAM–ALADIN Research on Mesoscale Operational NWP in Euromed

HBV                         Water Balance Department of the Hydrological Bureau (Hydrologiska Byråns Vattenbalansavdelning) model

HiRAM                     High Resolution Atmospheric Model (sometimes configurations -C180 and -C360 are included denoting 180 x 180 and 360 x 360                                          gridpoint resolutions, respectively)

HIRHAM                   no expansion

HIRLAM                   High Resolution Limited Area Model

HOPE                        Hamburg Ocean Primitive Equation Model (sometimes with “-G” for “global”)

HRRR                       High-Resolution Rapid Refresh

HSAMI                     Service Hydrométéorologique Apports Modules Intermédiaires

HTESSEL                 Hydrology Tiled ECMWF Scheme of Surface Exchanges over Land

HWRF                      Hurricane Weather Research and Forecasting Model

HYCOM                   Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model

HyMAP                    Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform

HYSPLIT                 Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model

I

IBIS                           Integrated Biosphere Simulator

IFS                             Integrated Forecasting System [may include cycle (cy) and revision (r) information]

IMAGE                      Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment

INGV-SXG                Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, SINTEX-G

INM-CM3.0               Institute of Numerical Mathematics Coupled Model, version 3.0

INM-CM4.0               Institute of Numerical Mathematics Coupled Model, version 4.0

IPSL-CM4                  L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 4

IPSL-CM5A-LR         L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5A, low resolution

IPSL-CM5A-MR        L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5A, mid resolution

IPSL-CM5B-LR         L’Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace Coupled Model, version 5B, low resolution

ISBA                           Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere

J

JSBACH                    Jena Scheme for Biosphere–Atmosphere Coupling in Hamburg

JULES                        Joint UK Land Environment Simulator

LDAS                         Land Data Assimilation System

LEAF-2                      Land Ecosystem–Atmosphere Feedback model, version 2

LICOM                      State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling for Atmospheric Sciences and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics/Institute of                  

                                          Atmospheric  Physics (LASG/IAP) Climate Ocean Model

LIM                            Louvain-la-Neuve Sea Ice Model

LMDZ                        Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique zoom model

LOCH                        Liège Ocean Carbon Heteronomous model

LOVECLIM              LOCH–VECODE–ECBILT–CLIO–AGISM Model (ESM)

M

MAGICC                    Model for the Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Induced Climate Change

MAPS                         Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System

MCIM                         mixed cloud isotopic model

Meso-NH                    no expansion

MIROC3.2 (hires)      Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, version 3.2 (high resolution)

MIROC3.2 (medres)  Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, version 3.2 (medium resolution)

MIROC4h                  Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, version 4 (high resolution)

MIROC5                    Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, version 5

MIROC-ESM            Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, Earth System Model

MIROC-ESM-CHEM     Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate, Earth System Model, Chemistry Coupled

MITgcm                     Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model

MIUBECHOG          Meteorological Institute of the University of Bonn, ECHO-G Model

MM5                         Fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model

MODFLOW              Modular three-dimensional finite-difference groundwater flow model

MOM                         Modular Ocean Model

MOSES                     Met Office Surface Exchange Scheme

MPAS                        Model for Prediction Across Scales

MPI-ESM-LR           Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, low resolution

MPI-ESM-MR          Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, medium resolution

MPI-ESM-P              Max Planck Institute Earth System Model, paleoclimate

MPI-OM                   Max Planck Institute Ocean Model

MRF                          Medium-Range Forecast Model (predecessor to GFS, 2002)

MRI-AGCM3.2H      Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model, version 3.2 (high resolution)

MRI-AGCM3.2S       Meteorological Research Institute Atmospheric General Circulation Model, version 3.2 (super-high resolution)

MRI-CGCM2.3.2a    Meteorological Research Institute Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean General Circulation Model, version 2.3.2a

MRI-CGCM1           Meteorological Research Institute Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean General Circulation Model, version 1

MRI-CGCM3           Meteorological Research Institute Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean General Circulation Model, version 3

MRI-ESM1              Meteorological Research Institute Earth System Model, version 1

N

NAM                       North American Mesoscale Forecast System

NEWS-e                   NSSL Experimental Warn-on-Forecast System for ensembles

NEMO                      Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean

NMM                       Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model [typically used in conjunction with WRF (WRF-NMM)]

Noah                         NOAA/NCEP–Oregon State University–Air Force Research Laboratory–NOAA/Office of Hydrology land surface model

Noah-MP                  Noah LSM with multiparameterization (or multiphysics) options

NOGAPS                  Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System

NorESM1-M            Norwegian Earth System Model, version 1 (intermediate resolution)

NorESM1-ME          NorESM1-M with carbon cycling (and biogeochemistry)

NSHARP                 Skew-T Hodograph Analysis and Research Program

O

OASIS 2.0               Ocean Atmosphere Sea Ice Soil, version 2.0

OGCM                    Ocean General Circulation Model

OFES                      Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator

OISST2 or OISSTv2  Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature, version 2

OPA                        Océan Parallélisé  [e.g., Océan Parallélisé (OPA) 8.1, now part of NEMO]

OPYC3                   Ocean Isopycnal Model

ORCA                     no expansion (an OGCM grid mesh, e.g., ORCA2 for 2° and ORCA05 for 0.5° projection)

ORCHIDEE           Organizing Carbon and Hydrology in Dynamic Ecosystems

P

PCM                     Parallel Climate Model

PERSIANN-CCS  PERSIANN–Cloud Classification System

POAMA-1           Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia

POEM                 Potsdam Earth Model

POM                   Princeton Ocean Model

POP                     Parallel Ocean Program

PORT                 Parallel Offline Radiative Transfer

PPE                     perturbed physics ensemble

PRISM                Parameter-Elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model

PRMS                 Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System

Q

QTCM1              Quasi-equilibrium Tropical Circulation Model

R

RACMO2            Regional Atmospheric Climate Model, version 2

RAMS                 Regional Atmospheric Modeling System

RAP                    Rapid Refresh

RCA                    Rossby Center Regional Atmospheric Model

RCP                    representative concentration pathway

RCM                   regional climate model (refers to a generic regional climate model)

RegCM3              Regional Climate Model, version 3

ROMS                 Regional Ocean Modeling System

RRTM                 Rapid Radiative Transfer Model

RRTMG              RRTM for GCMs

RUC                    Rapid Update Cycle

S

SAC-SMA           Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) model

SECHIBA           Schématisation des Échanges Hydriques à l’Interface Biosphère et l'Atmosphère

SHARPpy          Sounding and Hodograph Analysis and Research Program in Python

SHIFOR             Statistical Hurricane Intensity Forecast model

SHIPS                Statistical Hurricane Intensity Prediction Scheme

SiB                    Simple Biosphere Model

SINTEX            Scale Interaction Experiment

SINTEX-F         SINTEX–Frontier Research Center for Global Change (FRCGC) model

SINTEX-G        see INGV-SXG

SOM                  slab ocean model

SWAT                Soil and Water Assessment Tool

T

TITAN               Thunderstorm Identification, Tracking, Analysis, and Nowcasting

TOPMODEL     not an acronym; no expansion

TRIFFID        Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics

TPXO           Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution tidal model

U

UVic ESCM      University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model

V

VECODE         Vegetation Continuous Description

VIC                  Variable Infiltration Capacity model

W

WACCM            Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

WRF                   Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model; Model after acronym per developers

WRF-ARW        Advanced Research version of WRF (see also ARW)

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